Heidegger's ontology and the Paradigm
hile Husserl thought his phenomenological reduction led towards the transcendental ego, Heidegger determined his phenomenological reduction towards Being of beings. The former emphasized the epistemology of consciousness and the latter phenomenological ontology. In this sense, the approach of Heidegger is closer to that of the Paradigm of Christ.
" Thus an analytic of Dasein must remain our first requirement in the question of being. But in that case the problem of obtaining and securing the kind of access which will lead to Dasein, becomes even more burning one. To put it negatively, we have no right to resort to dogmatic constructions and to apply just any idea of Being and actuality to this entity, no matter how 'self-evident' that idea may be; nor may any of the 'categories' which such an idea prescribes be forced upon Dasein without proper ontological consideration. We must rather choose such a way of access and such a kind of interpretation that this entity can show itself in itself and from itself. And this means that it is to be shown as it is proximally and for the most part-in its average everydayness. In this everydayness there are certain structures which we shall exhibit - not just any accidental structures, but essential ones which, in every kind of Being that factical Dasein may possess, persist as determinative for the character of its Being. Thus by having regard for the basic state of Dasein's everydayness, we shall bring out the Being of this entity in a preparatory fashion." (Being and Time 1-2-5 originalp.16)
The attempt of Heidegger is, through the analysis of Dasein, to try to grasp the essential structure of Being. If we apply this understanding to the Paradigm of Christ, it is a reduction based on the essential structure of life, shifting from the chaos of the everyday attitudes to the reduction of those attitudes, and to the structure of life's impulses.Heidegger grasps the meaning of Being in terms of temporality. Compared to lesser animals which only stick to the present, humans can keep a certain distance from the present situation. With the work of memory and expectation, the separation of the past and the future emerges from the present only being, and humans can open a new dimension of consciousness. Humans can understand themselves and others as such beings. In this way, Being emerges. Heidegger determines human existence as Dasein; being there, where it projects its viewpoint of being.
Heidegger distinguishes authentic being from the being which belongs to everydayness as 'falling'. Compared to the usual use of present, past, and future, he employs, making present, having been, and coming towards for the authentic being.
It is a style to actualize one's ownmost possibility, including 'anticipating resoluteness towards death'."If the existential analytic of Dasein is to retain clarity in principle as to its function in fundamental ontology, then in order to master its provisional task of exhibiting Dasein's being, it must seek for one of the most far-reaching and most primordial possibilities of disclosure —— one that lies in Dasein itself. The way of disclosure in which Dasein brings itself before itself must be such that in it Dasein becomes accessible as simplified in a certain manner. With what is thus disclosed, the structural totality of the being we seek must then come to light in an elemental way."
This is exactly the method the Paradigm of Christ employed. Besides, Heidegger takes 'anxiety' as the initial object of Dasein's analysis. The extreme of anxiety is confrontation to 'nothing'(non-being). In the opposite direction (to nothing) is the call of conscience towards the authentic being. This context is virtually same as the paradigm's self-conscious and unconscious polarity. Although Heidegger's Dasein analysis does not have the paradigm's structural clarity, in a rough framework, it maintains the similar orientation.
There is, at first, transcendental movement of Being. Being's life's movement urges Dasein to transcend from there. Dasein, on each occasion, going beyond its being, transcends itself in the world, where it encounters entities within the world and takes intentional attitudes to them. The purpose of phenomenology is to inquire and clarify the movement of transcendence that causes the intentional attitudes. (quote) This is what the Paradigm of Christ actually engages in. In Heidegger, there is no clear explanation of the intentional attitudes, but in the Paradigm of Christ, this context is already concretely determined. The intentional attitudes to the world differ depending on Dasein's position in the polarity of the consciousness; on the self conscious side, it becomes either resistance or escape, and on the unconscious side, either dominance or receptivity.
Dasein analysis in Being and Time is constituted from the horizons of the temporality. According to Heidegger, the temporality makes the transcendental movement possible. The temporal set of the future, the past, and the present in inauthentic existence and that of the coming towards, having been, and making present in authentic existence respectively project transcendental movement.
The Paradigm of Christ is an ontological inquiry into the transcendental movement. While Heidegger in Being and Time analyzed Dasein in terms of temporality, the Paradigm of Christ analyzes it in terms of the structure of life's impulses. This transcendental movement is a simultaneous occurrence of life's movement; its division (spectrum) and unity in formal dimension, and decomposition (darkness) and integration in the material dimension. It can maintain a constancy through the external biological supply of physical energy.
The operative intention in the passive synthesis, or intention towards various beings in the later Husserl, and Merleau-Ponty's operative intention are virtually the same as the transcendental movement. In the Paradigm of Christ, we simply call it life's movement. It is the simultaneous occurrence between the form and the matter in the spirit based on the nature of light. Life transcends itself to the world through this movement.
Heidegger stopped using the term phenomenology after 'Being and Time', especially after mid 1930s. Heidegger first tried to explicate Dasein in terms of temporality in Being and Time and next tried to stand on the side of Being. Here, language mediates between Being and man. For Heidegger, language is the house of Being.
"But man is not only a living creature who possesses language along with other capacities. Rather, language is the house of Being in which man ek-sists by dwelling, in that he belongs to the truth of Being, guarding it."(Letter on Humanism p.21)
The Paradigm of Christ is the logos and the fusion of horizons where the word of God and the word of man intersect. The structure of the language of God encourages life's integration. In hearing, understanding and arranging his intentional attitudes in accordance to the language, humans must guard the true intention of the word so that life's integrated energy becomes full and actualizes the good, so that the history of Being can fulfill its purpose.
"As the disclosedness of the "there", understanding always pertains to the whole of the Being-in-the-world. In every understanding of the world, existence is understood with it, and vice versa. All interpretation, moreover, operates in the fore-structure, which we have already characterized. Any interpretation which is to contribute understanding, must already have understood what is to be interpreted. But if interpretation in any case already operate in that which is understood, and if it must draw its nurture from this, how is it to bring any scientific results to maturity without moving in a circle, especially if, moreover, the understanding which is presupposed still operates within our common information about man and the world? ....... But if we see this circle as a vicious one and look out for ways of avoiding it, even if we just 'sense' it as an inevitable imperfection, then the act of understanding has been misunderstood from the ground up. ........What is decisive is not to get out of the circle but come into it in the right way. This circle of understanding is not an orbit in which any random kind of knowledge may move; it is the expression of existential fore-structure of Dasein itself." (X¶32 p. 152-153)
The Paradigm of Christ also employs a hermeneutic circle on the phenomenological stage towards attaining the synoptic picture of Being. We have already defined the method of the Paradigm of Christ as Platonic dialectics or phenomenological reduction, but it is also a hermeneutic circle that takes the totality of life in advance. It is the method that draws out the totality of life that is homologous to the nature of light, by dividing the consciousness into four regions, establishing the intentional attitudes peculiar to each region, and intuiting the totality of life behind them.
The foremost importance in the question of the hermeneutic circle is that the structure of the totality of life must be included in this fore-having. Otherwise, the hermeneutic circle never reach the ultimate point. The ultimate structure of life can be unfolded gradually in this circulatory function through partial modifications. Heidegger's Dasein analysis, based on the temporality, does not as such project the structure of life, it can never reach the final point. The determination of the authentic existence should not have been the flat entity as 'anticipated resoluteness' but the dynamic structure of life. In Dasein analysis, we must keep the homologous structure between beings and Being.
Heidegger deals with Being in terms of temporality, which does not clearly indicates the integration of life and the Good as the essence of that nature. Heidegger's Dasein analysis is rather a private one, as it does not have something universal as its outcome, such as the nature of light (which the Paradigm of Christ put as the ultimate object of its reduction).Unlike the Paradigm of Christ, Dasein analysis does not hold tensive structure for personality integration.
Dasein analysis cannot return to the Idea directly, since it is concerned with the temporality of being, which does not enable us to grasp the form of participation in the idea. It is only possible to return to the Idea if this participation is properly formed. The basic failure of Heidegger is, as he stressed temporality of being, the concept of life shrank and consequently he did not grasp being as the structure of life.
Although Heidegger considers pre-Socratic 'physis' (nature) important as primordial being, it does not give us any solution. For, what he calls 'physis' as such does not have any articulate definition. Plato regarded Being as the form of the Good and determined at least its essential nature. And Aristotle's actuality is also, in its nature, heading towards the good.
Just as a picture of being emerged when our consciousness had separated temporal difference with present, past, and future, so the picture of integrated being emerges as soon as it separates conscious and unconscious characters in terms of spatial polarity.
There is no structure of life in Heidegger's theory of temporality. As he did not use the metaphorical text, the revelation, it was impossible for him to get in touch with the absolute and make his mind recollect(anamnesis) the truth. We must change the approach towards Being
If one cannot be successful in synoptic dialectics, one cannot be successful in divisional dialectics either. One can return to the Idea only in using the revelation, and be successful in forming the truth through arranging the revelation metaphorically. One can never grasp the structure of the absolute without the help of the absolute; the revelation.
Connection with the ground of being for the consciousness becomes possible in controlling life's impulses by having structurally correspondent relations between one's conscious elements and corresponding archetypes. Being cannot be unfolded by merely grasping of the structure of Dasein based on temporality. Through grasping the basic movement of life; through its destruction and the integration, it can be unfolded. It becomes possible not to put the stress on the temporality, but on the feedback movement of life's impulses. Only if one can reduce one's mind Phenomenologically to the impulsive structure of life, can Being be externalized.