Fichte

 

      Later Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre (the theory of science) asks the question of how the absolute as light can becomes the picture on our minds. This parallels the standpoint of the Paradigm of Christ in its descending dialectics. Later Fichte converses his way of thinking from 'self-positing of selfhood' to self-manifestation of the absolute as a picture on the mind. This resembles Heidegger's conversion in his thinking from the standpoint of Being and Time, called Kehre. That is to say, from the ascending way of thinking towards the absolute to the descending way of thinking out of the absolute.
      Although reaching the final insight that life as light is the ultimate nature of the absolute, as he did not divide the light into the spectrum along its intrinsic nature, the content of the discussion is rather abstract and ambiguous. The principle of the picture projected on the mind is therefore not structural. It cannot but depend upon the simple entity that depicts totality of life such as freedom, volition. However, regarding the absolute as light, and in the sense that he penetrates that the light being the ground of selfhood comes into our consciousness as homologous form with the self, Wissenschaftslehre of late Fichte holds significant insight.
      It is impossible for us to deal with long intricate discussion of Wissenschaftslehre. We must satisfy ourselves in dealing the area that relates to the Paradigm. 
       The basic propositions of the Wissenschaftslehre in 1812 are as follows.
       0 The absolute exists.
       1 the phenomenon of the absolute: 
      Schema1: The phenomenon of the absolute appears. Wissenschaftslehre presupposes acquisition of the concept of the absolute by already ascending the ladder through the facts of consciousness. The phenomenon or the picture of the absolute is called the original phenomenon. This is the first picture or the schema 1. The schema 1, although including the essence of the absolute, is not the absolute itself but just represents the absolute. Fichte also looks at this picture as a sign. If we look at the picture as a sign, it divides itself into signifier and signified. This is also what it represents and what it indicates in metaphor. Fichte calls the latter of these as pictorialness.
       2 self phenomenon of the phenomenon:
      Schema 2: The phenomenon appears to the self. When the schema 1 is projected to the schema 2, it enters into the change and the many. That means that the absolute enters into our consciousness and appears. There, the consciousness divides itself into the subject that appears to it and the object that appears. Hence, it is established that the subject sees the object and the picture enters into the reflectivity. At this stage, while keeping the intrinsic nature as being, the schema 1 that is the reflection of the One divides into material existence of being represented and formal existence of being indicated in the schema 2. Becoming the former as intuition and the latter as concept, however they appear as being unified.
        3 self phenomenalization as self phenomenalizes:
        Schema 3: The phenomenon (of Being) appears to the self as the phenomenon appears to the self. That which phenomenalises is in reality the phenomenalization of the self. As it is also the Being, it appears as something that indicates the totality of life such as freedom, will, etc. Thus the schema3 is what is projected as representation in re-catching the schema 2. What the schema3 represents is fivefold (or quintuple). The four elements in the schema 2; intuition and concept that are the contents of representation in the schema 2. The pictorialness of the schema 2, and the operation of self-phenomenalization that forms the schema 2 are represented and the fifth element <Als> (as) unites the four. Adding the <Als> together, Fichte insists quintuple of phenomenon.
4.The phenomenon directly phenomenalize itself as principle. Fichte expressed the schema 3 in a different way. Such a phenomenon is the synthesis between formal existence as principle and the accident when the self self-develops at each occasion. This indicates that the principle of life, through the process of life's experience, while keeping its identity, gradually reveals the picture of the absolute. The greater part of Wissenschaftslehre of 1812 tries to elucidate the context of this principle.

      When the light enters into the form of visibility, it enters into the mediator, a form of inference called <Ersehen> (to see from, to understand, or to indicate). As soon as it becomes visible, it becomes the object of inference. It enters into the form of <Durch> (through). <Durch> represents the essence of the connection between the absolute and the projected picture. It is the inter-mediation between the absolute and the picture. It is a rough form of the concept of life from our standpoint.
      That the light enters into the form of visibility means the light limits (conditions) the visibility, and therefore it gives a law for the visibility. This law divides itself into two laws. The factual law that relates to the phenomenal world and the moral law <Soll> (should) that responds to the noumenal world. Fichte does not clearly explain what the contents of law are. When the light enters into visibility, that which constitutes the picture for Fichte is still ambiguous and rather rough.
       At the final part of Wissenschaftslehre, Fichte after all explains the essence of this visibility as the image constituted through the opposition between being and non-being. The visibility is not entering into reality but floats between being and non-being. The visibility is merely an ability of being entering into.
      The opposition between being and non-being has infinite varieties in phenomenal side. The absolute opposition that has been reduced from the phenomenal oppositions can be perceived through separating ourselves from the middle of the oppositions. In this acquisition of the absolute opposition is, as it is, the absolute reflection, where the visibility makes itself visible. 
      Fichte then introduces the totality of life as will. In the consciousness of will, we reflect the whole being of visibility heading towards absolute unity. It is in the (moral) will that constitute the field of the absolute reflection which has been reduced from the many. This will establishes the order of the world as the law. If the will establishes the orders infinitely and completely in the sensible world, then the world finally becomes the picture of the absolute.