description of deviated attitudes

If we look carefully at the styles of deviated attitudes from the ground, we can distinguish them by two different inclinations. One can be described as arrogant, haughty, and boastful, and the other as loose, easy, and indulgent. The former is the active, and the latter the passive. However, since such attitudes are very often combined inseparably as self-centered and immature attitudes, it is at first difficult to distinguish them clearly.

the distinction of the active and the passive

Religious teachings generally try to transform these attitudes towards an unselfish attitude. If we analyze the teachings of Jesus that encourage the transformation of attitude in 'the Sermon on the Mount', we can classify them into two tendencies. The first is from the arrogant to the humble, and the second is from the loose to the resolute. Both of these transformations are inclined towards the lower region, owing to the first polarity. But, as we can see from the paradigm, the former goes from the active to the passive and the latter from the passive to the active, as electro-magnetic forces mutually negate each other. In this way, when we classify the attitudes based on impulses, we gradually see the second polarity of 'the active and the passive'. Adjusting to our physical sensation we can put the active to the right and the passive to the left, as most of us are right handed. We have now a two dimensional plane based on the polarities of life's impulses, 'up and down' and 'the active and the passive'

introduction to reactive attitudes

Although we could place the inclined attitudes in the four regions of the diagram, still it is difficult for us to return to the noumenal level only by these attitudes. As the frame of life must become the object of our intuition, we need something more that organically ties the phenomenal contents together and gives us a synoptic view point so that our trace back to the origin of life may become easier. Based on these inclined attitudes, we develop and amplify another level of attitudes as general reaction to the environment (or reality).

When the arrogant attitude reacts to the environment, it generally appears as 'resistance'. Likewise, the loose attitude as 'escape', the resolute attitude as 'dominance', and the humble attitude as 'receptivity'. This determination of reactive attitude in each region makes it possible for us to look at them synoptically because of its mutually compensatory relation. The determination of reactive attitude holds clearer contrast between the regions than that of inclined attitude. For not only are 'resistance' and 'receptivity' compensatory, as 'arrogant' and 'humble' are, but also 'resistance' and 'escape'.

Resistance and escape represent ego's reaction to the reality beyond its control. On the contrary, dominance and receptivity represent ego's reaction to the controllable reality. Since reality as such is constant in ordinary situations, different attitudes reflect different supplies of life's energy. Obviously the former does not have as much energy as the latter. Resistance and escape are, because of the division of energy, the reflection of already consumed energy, while dominance and receptivity are, because of their unity, the reflection of being full of energy. Reactive attitudes here become mirrors of how life's energies are supplied. The determination of the reactive attitude is originally from the characteristics of life's energies.

Resistance and escape, the division of life's energies also mean a deviation from the ground of being. Dominance and receptivity, the unity of life's energies, indicate a union with the ground of being, the recovery of the totality of life. (The notion of the ground of being was introduced in chapter 1.) Reactive attitudes are, on the one hand the reduction of the phenomena, and on the other the reflection of life's energies.

The function of our intuition works by grasping the totality of an object. In order to return to the movement of life, we need the synoptic view point so that we can grasp the totality of life through intuition. The significance of determination of reactive attitudes is that it holds this synoptic view point.

introduction to the noumenal attitudes

The next step is to disclose the impulsive dimension which causes the various attitudes. It is the process to return from phenomena to noumena by distinguishing the respective elements of life's impulse. In this process, at first, we are open to diverse contents in the attitudes in each region. Yet we gradually identify their common or universal forms through trial and error. This method is the so called method of free variation by Husserl. Since these common forms become the cause of various attitudes, their characteristics are more or less always present. It is, therefore, difficult to determine if they are exactly the grounds of phenomena or not. That is, those radical elements are not always hidden. Rather, they may be commonplace. In fact, the universal elements such as pride, pleasure and morality are used in various contexts in ordinary situations. Yet we can still identify them, for they must give the sense of noumenon. By the sense of noumenon we mean that it gives the final characteristics in personality as pride, pleasure,etc.. In other words, appearance of personality as arrogance, indulgence, etc. does not carry the sense of noumenon.

Through the method of free variation, our gradual identification allows us to extract such final entities as pride, pleasure, etc.. We are now able to determine the causes of reactive attitudes, which are also the causes of inclined attitudes, in respective regions of the diagram. We determine here the cause of resistance as 'pride'. For holding the sense of finality, it exists as an impulse. In the same way, we determine the cause of escape as 'pleasure'. For holding the finality, it also exists as an impulse. Lastly we determine the cause of dominance as 'belief' and the cause of receptivity as 'innocence'. Although these two seem to hold noumenal characteristics in personality, they do not seem to hold impulses directly. But they combine together and form a moral impulse. We may say that 'belief' represents the quantitative side of morality, volition, and 'innocence' represents the qualitative side of morality. As 'pride' and 'pleasure' are impulses towards division, there remain the necessary difference. But since 'belief' and 'innocence' are towards union of life, they are united as one moral impulse.


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